Working Bibliography about Dark Tourism

Wendy AsquithUniversity of Nottingham
Paru le : 29.11.2017

Dark tourism literature

Thematic listing

This bibliography is the result of extensive research conducted March – May 2016 as the first phase of the AHRC and LABEX-funded project ‘Dark tourism’ in comparative perspective: sites of suffering, sites of memory (AH/N504555/1; details here: This project seeks to explore, in comparative perspective, the relationship between memory, place, cultural heritage, colonialism and public understandings of suffering and imprisonment. The research offers a cross-cultural and interdisciplinary approach to the field of dark tourism, challenging any previous perception of the field’s Anglophone biases. It focuses in particular on former sites of suffering, incarceration and genocide, and explores the increasing engagement with these locations by the heritage industry by drawing on a broad range of disciplinary expertise including history, sociology, anthropology, comparative cultural studies, museum studies. Through an initial review of existing literature, the project seeks to establish a common framework of meaning which captures the similarities but also the distinctiveness of the evolution of theory around ‘dark tourism’ in France and the UK. It will then develop two specific strands of activity relating to: (i) cultures of penal and convict incarceration in France, the UK, Tasmania, and New Caledonia, and (ii) recent museums and memorials relating to the Holocaust and the genocide of the Tutsi in Rwanda. The team are interested at the same time in related questions of slavery-related tourism. This bibliography is part of the first phase of research.

All texts listed have primarily been located via online searches conducted through the University of Liverpool’s Discover database, Google Books and based on the search terms ‘dark tourism’, ‘thanatourism’, ‘penal heritage’ or ‘prison tourism’ and ‘slavery tourism’. These searches returned a substantial number of results from which the below list has been compiled. Any text containing one or more of the search terms listed in its title has been included here. Additionally, where one or more of the five key search terms used was present in a text’s abstract or listed as a keyword and the abstract engaged with tourism to sites of suffering, or memorials and museums dedicated to traumatic histories, these studies were also included.

The following bibliography reflects the particular emphases of the current project. Texts referenced below have been grouped thematically into eleven sections to show how – in our view – trends and clusters of activity have formed within the broad field of ‘dark tourism’ studies. Within each section, references have been ordered chronologically to show how each trend or cluster has developed. In addition to an initial overview of more general and foundational material, these eleven sections are:

  1. Genocide, massacre and atrocity memorials, museums and tourism
  2. Slavery commemoration, tourism and memory
  3. Penal heritage and crime tourism
  4. Battlefield and conflict tourism
  5. Poverty and slum tourism
  6. Dark tourism and travel writing
  7. Disaster tourism
  8. Pilgrimage as dark tourism: mass murder and celebrity death
  9. Dark tourism, public memory and museology
  10. Ruins, decay and dark tourist sites
  11. Dark tourism and development of the heritage sector.

Additionally an initial list (Dark tourism and thanatourism: contours, concepts and edited collections) presents texts that are primarily conceptual or theoretical in approach: texts which are attempting to shape the contours of the academic field of ‘dark tourism’ studies, define its key terms, or are collecting together a group of texts that span the field at a particular moment.

This bibliography, though extensive, cannot aim to provide a comprehensive listing of texts in the field of dark tourism studies and its cognate areas. Emphasis has primarily been on identifying and listing relevant texts in the English language (a parallel activity on French-language material is being conducted by the project partners in France). It is not intended that this bibliography systematically represents dark tourism literature in all languages. However, where our searches have returned references to relevant texts in languages other than English, and these are relevant to the core focus of this project, these have been included. As the project evolves, further comparative work will emerge.

If you are aware of a text that engages with the subjects listed above and want to suggest an addition to this bibliography, please get in touch with:

Dr Wendy Asquith

Postdoctoral Research Associate

University of Liverpool


Dark tourism and thanatourism: contours, concepts and edited collections

Reader, I. and Walter, T. (eds) (1993) Pilgrimage in Popular Culture, Basingstoke: Macmillian

Rojek, C. (1993) Ways of Escape: Modern Transformations in Leisure and Travel, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan

Dann, G. (1994) ‘Tourism the nostalgia industry of the future’, in W. Theobald, Global Tourism: The Next Decade, Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann

Foley, M. and Lennon, J.J. (1996) ‘Editorial: heart of darkness’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 2.4, 195-197

Seaton, A.V. (1996) ‘Guided by the dark: from thanatopsis to thanatourism’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 2.4, 234-244

Dann, G. (1998) ‘The dark side of tourism’, Études et rapports. Série L, Sociologie/Psychologie/Philosophie/Anthropologie 14, Aix-en-Provence: Centre International de Recherches et d’Etudes Touristiques.

Uzzell, D. and Ballantyne, R., (1998) ‘Heritage that hurts: interpretation in a postmodern world’, in D. Uzzell and R. Ballantyne (eds) Contemporary issues in heritage and environmental interpretation, 152-171

Seaton, A. V. (2000) ‘Thanatourism’, in J. Jafari (ed.) Encyclopaedia of Tourism, London: Routledge

Seaton, A.V. and Lennon, J.J. (2004) ‘Thanatourism in the early 21st century: moral panics, ulterior motives and alterior desires’, in T. V. Singh (ed.) New Horizons in Tourism: Strange Experiences and Stranger Practices, Wallingford: CAB International, 63-83

Sharpley, R. (2005) ‘Travels to the edge of darkness: towards a typology of dark tourism’, in C. Ryan, S. Page and M. Aicken (eds) Taking Tourism to the Limits: Issues, Concepts and Managerial Perspectives, London: Elsevier, 215-226

Stone, P.R. (2005) ‘Dark tourism consumption: a call for research’, e-Review of Tourism Research, 3(5.2) 109-117 (

Swain, H. (2005) ‘From Hi-de-Hi to the Hindu Kush’, Times Higher Education Supplement, 12 August, (1704) 38-39

Tarlow, P. (2005) ‘Dark tourism: the appealing “dark” side of tourism and more’, in M. Novelli (ed.) Niche Tourism: Contemporary Issues, Trends and Cases, London, Elsevier, 47-58

Tumarkin, M. (2005) Traumascapes: The Power and Fate of Places Transformed by Tragedy, Carlton: Melbourne University Press

Mohanty, M. (2006) ‘Walk on the dark side’ The Hindu, <> (accessed 18 March 2016)

Stone, P.R. (2006) ‘A dark tourism spectrum: towards a typology of death and macabre related tourist sites, attractions and exhibitions’, Tourism, 54.2, 145-160

Wight, A.C. (2006) ‘Philosophical and methodological praxes in dark tourism: Controversy, contention and the evolving paradigm’, Journal of Vacation Marketing, 12.2, 119-129

Dunkley, R. A. (2007) ‘The thanatourist: collected tales of the thanatourism experience’, Unpublished Doctoral Thesis (PhD), Cardiff Metropolitan University

Dunkley, R. A. (2007) ‘Re-peopling tourism: a “hot approach” to studying thanatourist experiences’, in I. Ateljevic, A. Pritchard and N. Morgan (eds) Critical Turn in Tourism Studies: Innovative Research Methodologies, London: Elsevier, 371-385

Dunkley, R.A., Westwood, S. and Morgan, N. (2007) ‘A shot in the dark? developing a new conceptual framework for thanatourism’, Asian Journal of Tourism and Hospitality, 1.1, 54-63

Ashworth, G.J. (2008) ‘The memorialization of violence and tragedy: human trauma as heritage’, in B. Graham and P. Howard (eds) The Ashgate Research Companion to Heritage and Identity, Aldershot, Hampshire: Ashgate , 231-244

Stone, P.R. and Sharpley, R. (2008) ‘Consuming dark-tourism a thanatological perspective’, Annals of Tourism Research, 35, 574-595

Bowman, M.S. and Pezzullo, P.C. (2009) ‘What’s so “dark” about “dark tourism”?: Death, tours and performance’, Tourist Studies, 9.3, 187-202

MacAmhalai, M. (2009) ‘The dialectics of dark tourism’, Unpublished Doctoral Thesis (PhD), University of Ulster

Robb, E. M. (2009) ‘Violence and recreation: vacationing in the realm of dark tourism’, Anthropology and Humanism, 34.1, 51-60

Seaton A.V. (2009) ‘Thanatourism and its discontents: an appraisal of a decades work with some future issues and directions’, in T. Jamal and M. Robinson (eds) The Sage Handbook of Tourism Studies, London: Sage, 521-541

Sharpley, R. and P.R. Stone (2009) The Darker Side of Travel: The Theory and Practice of Dark Tourism, Bristol: Channel

Seaton, A.V. (2009) ‘Purposeful otherness: approaches to the management of thanatourism’, in R. Sharpley and P. Stone, (ed.) The Darker Side of Travel: The Theory and Practice of Dark Tourism, Bristol: Channel, 75-108

Coote, D. (2010) ‘Exploitation or healthy interest? An analysis of dark tourism’, The Jeju Weekly, <> (accessed 4 March 2016)

Lennon, J. J. (2010) ‘Dark tourism: selective interpretation and development’, Unpublished Doctoral Thesis (PhD), Glasgow Caledonian University

Smith, M., MacLeod, N. and Hart Robertson, M. (2010) Key Concepts in Tourist Studies, London: Sage. 35-40

Dale C. and Robinson, N. (2011) ‘Dark tourism’, in P. Robinson et al. (eds) Research Themes for Tourism, Wallingford: CABI, pp.205-217

Knudsen, B. (2011) ‘Thanatourism: witnessing difficult pasts’, Tourist Studies, 11.1, 55-72

Sharpley, R. and P.R. Stone (2011) Tourist Experiences: Contemporary Perspectives, London: Routledge

Stone, P.R. (2011) ‘Dark tourism: towards a new post-disciplinary research agenda’, International Journal of Tourism Anthropology, 1(3/4) 318-332

Casbeard, R., and Booth, C. (2012) ‘Post-modernity and the exceptionalism of the present in dark tourism’, Journal of Unconventional Parks, Tourism and Recreation Research, 4.1, 2-8

Chronis, A. (2012) ‘Between place and story: Gettysburg as tourism imaginary’, Annals of Tourism Research, 39.4, 1797-1816

Johanson, M. (2012) ‘Dark tourism: understanding the attraction of death and disaster’, International Business Times, <> (accessed 7 April 2016)

Korstanje, M. and Ivanov, S. (2012) ‘Tourism as a form of new psychological resilience: the inception of dark tourism’, Cultur: Revista de Cultura e Turismo, 6.4, 56-71

Margaine, S. (2012) Forbidden places: Exploring our Abandoned Heritage, Versailles: Jonglez

Reisz, M. (2012) ‘“Death-defying” or “death-denying”? Scholars probe our holidays in hell’, Times Higher Education, 3 May, (2048) 17

Biran, A. and Hyde, K. (2013) ‘New perspectives on dark tourism’, International Journal of Culture, Tourism, and Hospitality Research, 7.3, 191-198

Buda, D. and McIntosh, A. (2013) ‘Dark tourism and voyeurism: tourist arrested for “spying” in Iran’, International Journal of Culture, Tourism, and Hospitality Research, 7.3, 214-226

Budweg, S. (2013) Dark Tourism: Motive und Erscheinungsformen, Munich: GRIN Verlag

Coldwell, W. (2013) ‘Dark tourism: why murder sites and disaster zones are proving popular’, The Guardian, 31 October, <> (accessed 4 March 2016)

Dick, M. (2013) Der Schwarze Tourismus – Eine Kritische Betrachtung, Bachelor’s thesis, GRIN Verlag

Podoshen, J. S. (2013) ‘Dark tourism motivations: simulation, emotional contagion and topographic comparison’, Tourism Management, 35, 263-271

Stone, P. (2013) ‘Dark tourism scholarship: a critical review’, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 7.3, 307-318

White L. and Frew, E. (2013) Dark Tourism and Place Identity: Managing and Interpreting Dark Places, London: Routledge

Carrigan, A. (2014) ‘Dark tourism and postcolonial studies: critical intersections’, Postcolonial Studies, 17.3, 236-250

Clarke, R., Dutton, J. and Johnston, A. (2014) ‘Shadow zones: dark travel and postcolonial cultures’, Postcolonial Studies, 17.3, 221-235

Giraldo Velásquez, C. M., Van Broeck, A. M., and Posada Hincapie, L. F. (2014) ‘El pasado polémico de los años ochenta como atractivo turístico en Medellín, Colombia/ The controversial past (the era of the eighties) of Medellin, Colombia, as tourist attraction’, Anuario Turismo y Sociedad, 15, 101-114

Hartmann, R. (2014) ‘Dark tourism, thanatourism, and dissonance in heritage tourism management: new directions in contemporary tourism research’, Journal of Heritage Tourism, 9.2, 166-182

Tézenas, A. (2014) Tourisme de la désolation, Arles: Actes Sud

Dunkley, R. (2015) ‘Beyond temporal reflections in thanatourism research’, Annals of Tourism Research, 52, 177-179

Johnston, T. (2015) ‘The geographies of thanatourism’, Geography, 100.1, 20-27

Johnston, T. and Mandelartz, P. (2015) Thanatourism: Case Studies in Travel to the Dark Side, Oxford: Goodfellow

Korstanje, M. (2015) ‘The Anthropology of Dark Tourism, Exploring the contradiction of Capitalism’, CERS Centre for Ethnicity and Racism Study, University of Leeds, UK, Working paper 22

Masako, F. (2015) ‘What does the rise of “dark tourism” mean?’, ABC, <> (accessed 10 March 2016)

Podoshen, J. S., Venkatesh, V., Wallin, J., Andrzejewski, S. A., and Jin, Z. (2015) ‘Dystopian dark tourism: an exploratory examination’, Tourism Management, 51, 316-328

Podoshen, J. S., Andrzejewski, S. A., Venkatesh, V., and Wallin, J. (2015) ‘New approaches to dark tourism inquiry: a response to Isaac’, Tourism Management, 51, 331-334

‘Wish you weren’t here: dark tourism and memory’ (2015) ABC, <> (accessed 11 March 2016)

Tinson, J.S., Saren, M.J., and Roth, B. E. (2015) ‘Exploring the role of dark tourism in the creation of national identity of young Americans’, Journal of Marketing Management, 31.7/8, 856-880

Edwards, J. (2016) ‘Dark tourism: death, disaster, suffering’ In C. Thompson (ed.) Routledge Companion to Travel Writing, London: Routledge Companion Series, Routledge, 1-19

Kerr, M. M. and Price, R. H. (2016) ‘Overlooked encounters: young tourists’ experiences at dark sites’, Journal of Heritage Tourism, 11.2, 177-185

Tzanelli, R. (2016) Thanatourism and Cinematic Representations of Risk: Screening the End of Tourism, London: Routledge

Hooper, G. and Lennon, J.J. (forthcoming 2017) Dark Tourism: Practice and Interpretation, London: Routledge

Reed, C.C. (n.d.) ‘Shedding Light on Dark Tourism’, Go Nomad, <> (accessed 4 March 2016).

Genocide, massacre and atrocity memorials, museums and tourism

‘Monument Against Fascism: Jochen Gerz and Esther Shalev-Gerz’ (1986) <> (accessed 20 March 2016)

Young, J.E. (1994) The Texture of Memory: Holocaust Memorials and Meaning, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press

Ashworth, G.J. (1996) ‘Holocaust tourism: the lessons of Krakow-Kazimierz’, in M. Robinson et al. (eds) Tourism and Culture Towards the 21st-Century Culture as the Tourist Product: Conference Proceedings. Sunderland: Business Education Publishers Ltd, 1-12

Becker, A. (1997) ‘Auschwitz-Birkenau comme “musée”: espace d’histoire, espace de mémoire?’, Tsafon: Revue d’études juives du Nord, 30/31, 109-28

Lennon, J.J. and Foley, M. (1999) ‘Interpretation of the unimaginable: the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington D.C., and “dark tourism”’, Journal of Travel Research, 38.1, 46-50

Beech, J. (2000) ‘The enigma of holocaust sites as tourist attractions: the case of Buchenwald’, Managing Leisure, 5, 29-41

Cooke, S. (2000) ‘Negotiating memory and identity: the Hyde Park Holocaust Memorial, London’, Journal of Historical Geography, 26, 449-465

Lennon, J.J. and Foley, M (2000) Dark Tourism: The Attraction of Death and Disaster, Andover: Cengage

Miles, W. (2002) ‘Auschwitz: museum interpretation and darker tourism.’ Annals of Tourism Research, 29.4, 1175-1178

Young J.E. (2002) At Memory’s Edge: After-images of the Holocaust in Contemporary Art and Architecture, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press

Pollock, G. (2003) ‘Holocaust tourism: being there, looking back and the ethics of spatial memory’, in N. Lubbren and D. Couch (eds) Visual Culture and Tourism, London: Berg Publishers, 175-189

Ashworth, G.J. (2004) ‘Tourism and the heritage of atrocity: managing the heritage of South African Apartheid for entertainment’, in T.V. Singh, (ed.) New Horizons in Tourism: Strange Experiences and Stranger Practices, CAB International, 95-108

Kiernan, B. (2004) ‘Coming to terms with the past Cambodia’, History Today, 16-19 <> (accessed 18 March 2016)

Messham-Muir, K. (2004) ‘Dark visitations: the possibilities and problems of experience and memory in Holocaust museums’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Art, 5.1, 97-111

Sullivan, K. (2004) ‘Atomica world: the place of nuclear tourism’, in M. Sheller and J. Urry (eds) Tourism Mobilities: Places to Play, Places in Play, London: Routledge, 192-204

Becker, A. (2006) ‘The Emergence of the Concentrations Camps’, in M. Cattaruzza, M. Flores, S.L. Sullan and E. Traverso (eds) History of the Shoah: The Crisis of Europe, The Extermination of the Jews and the Memory of the Twentieth Century, vol.1 (Italian edition: Storia della Shoah: La crisi dell’Europa e lo sterminio degli ebrei, vol.1) Turin: UTET

Hughes, R. (2008) ‘Dutiful tourism: Encountering the Cambodian genocide’, Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 49.3, 318-330

Beech, J. (2009) ‘Genocide tourism’, in R. Sharpley and P.R. Stone (eds) The Darker Side of Travel: The Theory and Practice of Dark Tourism, Bristol: Channel, 207-223

Dalton, D. (2009) ‘Encountering Auschwitz: a personal rumination on the possibilities and limitations of witnessing/remembering trauma in memorial space’, Law Text Culture, 13, 187-226

Thurnell-Read, T. (2009) ‘Engaging Auschwitz: an analysis of young travellers’ experiences of Holocaust tourism’, Journal of Tourism Consumption and Practice, 1.1, 26-52

Broderick, M. (2010) ‘Topographies of trauma: dark tourism, world heritage and Hiroshima’, Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific, 24.5, n.p. <> (accessed 1 September 2016)

Biran, A., Poria, Y., and Oren, G. (2011) ‘Sought experiences at (dark) heritage sites’, Annals of Tourism Research, 38.3, 820-841

Carden-Coyne, A. (2011) ‘The ethics of representation in Holocaust museums’, in J-M. Dreyfus and D. Langton (eds) Writing the Holocaust, London: Bloomsbury Publishing

Cohen, E.H. (2011) ‘Educational dark tourism at an in populo site – the Holocaust Museum in Jerusalem’, Annals of Tourism Research, 38, 193-209

Copeland, C. (2011) ‘Madness and mayhem: the aesthetics of dark tourism’, Afterimage, 39(1/2), 43-46

Sharpley, R. (2012) ‘Towards an understanding of “genocide tourism”: an analysis of visitors’ accounts of their experience of recent genocide sites’, in R. Sharpley and P.R. Stone (eds) Contemporary Tourist Experience: Concepts and Consequences, London; New York: Routledge, 95-109

Bella, M.P.D. (2012) ‘Walking memory: Berlin’s “Holocaust Trail”’, Journeys, 13.2, 55-70

Bolin, A. (2012) ‘On the side of light: performing morality at Rwanda’s genocide memorials’, Journal of Conflict Archaeology, 7.3, 199-207

Du, W. (2012) ‘Tourism motivation for visiting dark tourism sites: a case study of the memorial to the victims of the Nanjing massacre’, Unpublished Doctoral Thesis (PhD), Glasgow Calendonian University

Ntunda, J. (2012) ‘Investigating the challenges of promoting dark tourism in Rwanda’, Unpublished Bachelor’s Thesis, Rwanda Tourism University College (

Lee, C.C. (2012) ‘Dark Tourism: Heritage Management in Kigali Memorial Centre, Rwanda’, International Hospitality and Tourism Student Journal, 4.1, 63-72

Oren, G. and Shani, A. (2012) ‘The Yad Vashem Holocaust Museum: educational dark tourism in a futuristic form’, Journal of Heritage Tourism, 7.3, 255-270

Cole, T. (2013) ‘(Re)visiting Auschwitz: (re)encountering the Holocaust in its landscapes’, Cultural History, 2.2, 232-246

Friedrich, M., and Johnston, T. (2013) ‘Beauty versus tragedy: thanatourism and the memorialisation of the 1994 Rwandan Genocide’, Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 11.4, 302-320

Kidron, C.A. (2013) ‘Being there together: dark family tourism and the emotive experience of co-presence in the Holocaust past’, Annals of Tourism Research, 41, 175-194

Caswell, M. (2014) Archiving the Unspeakable: Silence, Memory, and the Photographic Record in Cambodia, Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press

Koleth, M. (2014) ‘Hope in the dark: geographies of volunteer and dark tourism in Cambodia’, Cultural Geographies, 21.4, 681-694

Sahgal, N. (2014) ‘Dark tourism: the killing fields of Cambodia’, National Geographic Traveller India, <> (accessed 23 March 2016)

Sharpley, R. and Gahigana, I. (2014) ‘Tourist experiences of genocide sites: the case of Rwanda’, Turističko poslovanje, 13, 61-78

Wight, A. C. (2014) ‘Tracking discourses of occupation and genocide in Lithuanian museums and sites of memory’, Unpublished Doctoral Thesis (PhD), University of Plymouth

Cole, T. (2015) ‘Holocaust tourism: the strange yet familiar/the familiar yet strange’, in D.I. Popescu and T. Schult (eds), Revisiting Holocaust Representation in the Post-Witness Era, New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan

Golańska, D. (2015) ‘Affective spaces, sensuous engagements: in quest of a synaesthetic approach to “dark memorials’’’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 21.8, 773-790

Stefaniak, A.C., Liyanage, S. and Powell, R. (2015) ‘Dark destinations – visitor reflections from a Holocaust memorial site’, International Journal of Tourism Cities, 1.4, 282-298

Sebba, A. (2016) ‘Women of Ravensbrück’ History Today, 66.1, 7

Slavery commemoration, tourism and memory

Roux, E. de (1996) ‘Le mythe de la Maison des Esclaves qui résiste à la réalité’, Le Monde, 2 December

Davis, O.D. (1997) ‘The Door of No Return: reclaiming the past through the rhetoric of pilgrimage’, The Western Journal of Black Studies, 21.3, 156-161

Roux, E. de (1998) ‘La discrète célébration du 150e anniversaire de l’abolition de l’esclavage’, Le Monde, April 5

Ebron, P.A. (1999) ‘Tourists as pilgrims: commercial fashioning of transatlantic politics’, American Ethnologist, 26.4, 910-932

Seaton, A.V. (2001) ‘Sources of slavery—destinations of slavery: the silences and disclosures of slavery heritage in the UK and US’, International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Administration, 2.3/4, 107-129

Beech, J.G. (2001) ‘The marketing of slavery heritage in the United Kingdom’, International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Administration, 2.3/4, 85-106

Chivallon, C. (2002) ‘Construction d’une mémoire relative à l’esclavage et instrumentalisation politique: le cas des anciens ports négriers de Bordeaux et Bristol’, Cahiers des Anneaux de la Mémoire, 4, 176-203

Chivallon, C. (2002) ‘L’émergence récente de la mémoire de l’esclavage dans l’espace public: enjeux et significations’, Cahiers d’Histoire, 89, 41-60, <> (accessed 11 March 2016)

Dann, G.M.S. and Seaton, A.V. (2002) (eds) Slavery, Contested Heritage and Thanatourism, London: Routledge

Small, S. and Eichstedt, J.L. (2002) Representations of Slavery: Race and Ideology in Southern Plantation Museums, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press

Strachan, I.G. (2002) Paradise and Plantation: Tourism and Culture in the Anglophone Caribbean, Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press

Chivallon, C. (2005) ‘L’émergence récente de la mémoire de l’esclavage dans l’espace public: enjeux et significations’, Revue d’Histoire Moderne et Contemporaine, 52.4a, 64-81

Richards, S.L. (2005) ‘What Is to Be Remembered? Tourism to Ghana’s Slave Castle-Dungeons’, Theatre Journal, 57.4, 617-637

Horton J.O. and Horton, L.E. (2006) (eds) Slavery and Public History: The Tough Stuff of American Memory, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press

Tillinac, D. (2006) (ed.) ‘Bordeaux, la traite et l’esclavage’, Report of the Comité de reflexion bordelais.

Vergès, F. (2006) ‘Le Comité pour la mémoire de l’esclavage’, Cités, 25, 167-169

Glissant, E. (2007) Mémoires des esclavages: la fondation d’un centre national pour la mémoire des esclavages et de leurs abolitions, Paris: Gallimard and La Documentation Française

Schramm, K. (2007) ‘Slave route projects: tracing the heritage of slavery in Ghana’, in F. de Jong and M. Rowlands (eds) Alternative Imaginaries of Memory in West Africa, London: Left Coast Press, 71-98

Curtius, A.D. (2008) ‘À Fort-de-France les statues ne meurent pas’, International Journal of Francophone Studies, 11.1/2, 87-106

Dubois, L. (2008) ‘Haunting Delgrès’, in D. Walkowitz (ed.) Race, Nation and Memory in Public Space, Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 312-28

Garraway, D.L. (2008) ‘Memory as reparation? the politics of remembering slavery in France from abolition to the Loi Taubira’, International Journal of Francophone Studies, 11.3, 365-386

Rice, A. (2009) ‘Museums, memorials and plantation houses in the Black Atlantic: slavery and the development of dark tourism’, in R. Sharpley and P.R. Stone (eds) The Darker Side of Travel: The Theory and Practice of Dark Tourism, Bristol: Channel View Publications, 224-246

Araujo, A.L. (2010) Public Memory of Slavery: Victims and Perpetrators in the South Atlantic, Amherst, NY: Cambria Press

Araujo, A. L. (2010) ‘Welcome the diaspora: slave trade heritage tourism and the public memory of slavery’, Ethnologies, 32.2, 145-178

Chivallon, C. (2010) ‘Resurgence of the memory of slavery in france: issues and significations of a public and academic debate’, in A.L. Araujo (ed) Living History: Encountering the Memory of the Heirs of Slavery, Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 83-97

Conseil Général de la Guadeloupe (c.2010) La Route de l’Esclave: Traces-mémoires en Guadeloupe, <> (accessed 11 March 2016)

Medhurst, M.J. (2010) ‘George W. Bush at Goree Island: American slavery and the rhetoric of redemption’, Quarterly Journal of Speech, 96.3, 257-277

Rice, A. (2010) Creating Memorials, Building Identities: The Politics of Memory in the Black Atlantic, Liverpool: Liverpool University Press

Yankholmes, A. B. and Akyeampong, O. A. (2010) ‘Tourists’ perceptions of heritage tourism development in Danish-Osu, Ghana’, International Journal of Tourism Research, 12.5, 603-616

Finley, C. (2011) ‘Schematics of Memory’, Small Axe (Visual Life of Catastrophic History series), 35, 96-116

Himid, L. (2011) ‘What Are Monuments For? Possible Landmarks on the Urban Map: Paris and London’, <> (accessed 11 March 2016)

Mowatt, R.A. and Chancellor, C.H. (2011) ‘Visiting death and life: dark tourism and slave castles’, Annals of Tourism Research, 38.4, 1410-1434

Rice, A. (2011) ‘Tracing slavery and abolition’s routes and viewing inside the invisible: the monumental landscape and the African Atlantic’, Atlantic Studies, 8.2, 253-274

Chérel, E. (2012) Le Mémorial de l’abolition de l’esclavage de Nantes: enjeux et controverses (1998-2012), Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 41-77

Comité pour la Mémoire et l’Histoire de l’Esclavage (c.2012) ‘Mémoires de la traite négrière, de l’esclavage et de leurs abolitions, rapport à Monsieur le Premier Ministre, remis le 12 avril 2005’, <> (accessed 11 March 2016)

Forsdick, C. (2012) ‘The Panthéon’s empty plinth: commemorating slavery in contemporary France’, Atlantic Studies, 9.3, 279-297

Hourcade, R. (2012) ‘Commemorating a guilty past: the politics of memory in the French former slave trade cities’, in A.L. Araujo (ed.) Politics of Memory: Making Slavery Visible in the Public Space, New York: Routledge, 124-140

Oldfield, J.R. (2012) ‘Repairing historical wrongs: public history and Transatlantic Slavery’, Social and Legal Studies, 21.2, 243-255

Rice, A. and Kardux, J.C. (2012) (eds) Atlantic Studies: Global Currents – Special Issue: The Slave Trade’s Dissonant Heritage: Memorial Sites, Museum Practices and Dark Tourism, 9.3

Bocoum, H. and Toulier, B. (2013) ‘La fabrication du patrimoine: l’exemple de Gorée (Sénégal)’, In Situ, 20 <> (accessed 11 March 2016)

Frith, N. (2013) ‘“Working through” slavery: the limits of shared memories in contemporary France’, Irish Journal of Francophone Studies, 13, 17-39

Hinks, P. (2013) ‘Mémorial de l’abolition de l’esclavage’ (exhibition reviews) Journal of American History, 100.1, 150-155

Hourcade, R. (2013) ‘Un musée d’histoire face à la question raciale: l’International Slavery Museum de Liverpool’, Genèses, 92, 6-27

Mbembe, A. (2013) ‘L’esclave figure de l’anti-musee’, in F. Vergès (ed.) Exposer l’esclavage: méthodologies et pratiques, special issue of Africultures, 91, 37-40

‘The Memory Village’ (2013) <> (accessed 11 March 2016)

Small, S. (2013) ‘Still Back of the Big House: Slave Cabins and Slavery in Southern Heritage Tourism’, Tourism Geographies: An International Journal of Tourism Space, Place and Environment, 153, 405-423

Valognes, S. (2013) ‘Slave-trade memory politics in Nantes and Bordeaux: urban fabric between screen and critical landscape’, Journal of African Diaspora Archaeology and Heritage 2.2, 151-171

Forsdick, C. (2014) ‘Monuments, memorials, museums: slavery commemoration and the search for alternative archival spaces’, Francosphères, 3.1, 81-98

Forsdick, C. (2014) ‘Travel, slavery, memory: thanatourism in the French Atlantic’, Postcolonial Studies, 17.3, 251-265

Seck, I. (2014) Bouki fait Gombo: A History of the Slavery Community of Habitation Haydal (Whitney Plantation) Louisiana, 1750-1860, New Orleans: UNO Press

Amsden, D. (2015) ‘Building the first slavery museum in America’, The New York Times Magazine, <> (accessed 24 March 2016)

D’Harlingue, B. (2015) ‘On the plantation with ghosts: antagonisms of slavery tourism’, South Carolina Review, 47.2, 74-92

Forsdick, C. (2015) ‘Situating Gorée’, in N. Frith and K. Hodgson (eds) At the Limits of Memory: Commemorating Slavery and Labour Exploitation in the Francophone World, Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 131-153

Frith, N. and Hodgson, K. (2015) (eds) At the Limits of Memory: Legacies of Slavery in the Francophone World, Liverpool: Liverpool University Press

Gentry, G. W. and Alderman, D. H. (2015) ‘“A city built upon its dead”: the intersection of past and present through ghost walk tourism in Savannah, Georgia’, South Carolina Review, 47.2, 49-64

Hanna, S.P. et al. (2015) (eds) Social Memory and Heritage Tourism Methodologies, London: Routledge

Miles, T. (2015) ‘Goat bones in the basement: a case of race, gender and haunting in old Savannah’, South Carolina Review, 47.2, 25-36

Miles, T. (2015) Tales from the Haunted South: Dark tourism and Memories of Slavery from the Civil War era, Chapel Hill, SC: University of South Carolina Press

Otele, O. (2015) ‘Rebranding the trauma of slavery, or how to pacify the masses with sites of memory’, Discover Society, <> (accessed 4 May 2016)

Reed, A. (2015) Pilgrimage Tourism of Diaspora Africans to Ghana, New York: Routledge

Yankholmes, A., and McKercher, B. (2015) ‘Rethinking slavery heritage tourism’, Journal of Heritage Tourism 10.3, 233-247

Benjamin, S., Kline, C., Alderman, D. and Hoggard, W. (2016) ‘Heritage site visitation and attitudes toward African American heritage preservation: an investigation of North Carolina residents’, Journal of Travel Research, 55.7, 919-933

Penal heritage and crime tourism

Hawkins, D. (1992) ‘Of sun and sewage’, U.S. News and World Report, 113.18, 14

Meyer, W.B. (1994) ‘The selling of Libby Prison’, American Heritage, 45.7, 114-119

Yee, C.M. (1997) ‘Age-old prison mixes gallows, disco lights to rope in tourists’, Wall Street Journal – Eastern Edition, 8 May <> (accessed 1 September 2016)

Doyle, P. and Williams, C. (2000) City of Shadows: Sydney Police Photographs 1912-1948. Sydney: Historic Houses

Frow, J. (2000) ‘In the penal colony’, Journal of Australian Studies, 24.64, 1-13

Loo, T. and Strange, C. (2000) ‘”Rock prison of liberation”: Alcatraz Island and the American imagination’, Radical History Review, 78, 27-57

Adams, J. (2001) ‘”The wildest show in the South”: tourism and incarceration at Angola (illustrated)’, TDR: The Drama Review, 45.2, 94-108

Buckland, G. and Evans, H. (2001) Shots in the Dark: True Crime Pictures. Boston: Bullfinch

Hannaford, K. (2001) ‘Culture versus commerce: The Libby Prison Museum and the image of Chicago, 1889-1899’, Ecumene, 8.3, 284-316

Shackley, M. (2001) ‘Potential Futures for Robben Island: shrine, museum or theme park?’ International Journal of Heritage Studies, 7(4) 355-363

Barta, P. (2002) ‘Jailhouse rebirth: Ossining tires of being a prisoner to Sing Sing’, Wall Street Journal – Eastern Edition

Lennon, J. (2002) ‘The Broad Arrow Café, Port Arthur, Tasmania: using social values methodology to resolve the commemoration issues’, Historica Environment, 16.3, 38-46

Strange, C. and Kempa, M. (2003) ‘Shades of dark tourism Alcatraz and Robben Island’, Annals of Tourism Research, 30.2, 386-405

‘Hair-raising attraction’ (2004) Travel Weekly: The Choice of Travel Professionals, 1702, 75

LaGesse, D. and Silver, M. (2004) ‘This jailhouse rocks’, U.S. News and World Report, 136.14, 8-10

Plummer, E.L. (2004) ‘Tourism at the Ohio penitentiary’, Timeline, 21.1, 18-25

Schrift, M. (2004) ‘The Angola Prison rodeo: inmate cowboys and institutional tourism’, Ethnology, 43.4, 331-344

Wilson, J.Z. (2004) ‘Dark tourism and the celebrity prisoner: front and back regions in representations of an Australian historical prison’, Journal of Australian Studies, 82, 171-173

Zuelow, E. (2004) ‘Enshrining Ireland’s nationalist history inside prison walls: the restoration of Kilmainham jail’, Éire-Ireland, 3, 180-201

Boehmer, E. (2005) ‘Robben Island’, Journal of Postcolonial Writing, 41.2, 223-231

Page, S.J., Ryan, C. and Aicken, M. (2005) Taking Tourism to the Limits, Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier

Roma, T. and Szarkowski, J. (2006) In Prison Air: The Cells of Holmesburg Prison, New York, NY: Powerhouse

Schrift, M. (2006) ‘Angola prison art: captivity, creativity, and consumerism’, Journal of American Folklore, 119.473, 257-274

Best, M. (2007) ‘Norfolk Island: thanatourism, history and visitor emotions’, Shama: The International Journal of Research into Island Cultures, 1.2, 30-48

Conwy, S. (2007) ‘Cambodia’, New Internationalist, (403), 36

Grefe, C.M. (2008) ‘Connecticut connections: doing time at Newgate Prison: getting to the bottom of Connecticut’s prison history’, Connecticut History, 47.1, 137-152

Kuusi, H. (2008) ‘Prison experience and socialist sculptures – tourism and the Soviet past in the Baltic States’, in A. Kositainen and T. Syrjämaa (eds) Touring the Past: Uses of History in Tourism, 6, 105-122

Wilson, J. (2008) ‘Transgressive decor: narrative glimpses in Australian prisons, 1970s-1990s’ Crime, Media, Culture, 4.3, 331-348

Wilson, J.Z. (2008) Prison: Cultural Memory and Dark Tourism, New York, NY: Peter Lang

Brook, H. (2009) ‘Dark tourism’, Law Text Culture. 13, 261-272

Clifford, K. and Mitchell, G. (2009) ‘“The killer point”: contemporary reconfigurations of the gap as a crime scene’, Law Text Culture, 13, 80-107

Gustavo, V. C. (2009). ‘Turismo y cambio social: el caso de Aventureiro – Ilha Grande (RJ) – Brasil / Tourism and social change: the case of Aventureiro – Ilha Grande (RJ) Brazil’, Estudios y Perspectivas En Turismo, 3, 243-261

Kumar, K. (2009) ‘Convict heritage tourism: a case study of Fremantle Prison, Australia’, Tourismos, 4.4, 199-214

Payne, C. (2009) Asylum: Inside the Closed World of State Mental Hospitals, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

Antonova, M. (2010) ‘Travel notes’, Russian Life, 53.5, 14-15

Barnard, E. (2010) Exiled: The Port Arthur convict photographs, National Library of Australia: Canberra

Finger, J. (2010) St Helena Story: An Illustrated History of Colonial Queensland’s Island Prison, Brisbane: Boolarong Press

Terry, A. (2010) ‘Criminals and Tourists: Prison History and Museum Politics at the Bargello in Florence’, Art History, 33.5, 836-855

Miron, J. (2011) Prisons, Asylums, and the Public: Institutional Visiting in the Nineteenth Century, Toronoto: University of Toronto Press

Walby, K. and Piché, J. (2011) ‘The polysemy of punishment memorialization: dark tourism and Ontario’s penal history museums’, Punishment and Society, 13.4, 451-472

Welch, M. and Macuare, M. (2011) ‘Penal tourism in Argentina: bridging Foucauldian and neo-Durkheimian perspectives’, Theoretical Criminology, 15.4, 401-425

Wilson, D., Spina, R. and Canaan, J.E. (2011) ‘In praise of the carceral tour: learning from the Grendon experience’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 50.4, 343-355

Wilson, J. (2011) ‘Australian prison tourism: a question of narrative integrity’, History Compass, 9.8, 562-571

Bruggeman, S. C. (2012) ‘Reforming the carceral past’, Radical History Review, 113, 171-186

Draper, S. (2012) Afterlives of Confinement: Spatial Transitions in Post-Dictatorship Latin America, Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press

Hardy, J. S. (2012) ‘Gulag tourism: Khrushchev’s “show” prisons in the Cold War context, 1954-59’, Russian Review, 71.1, 49-78

Piché, J. and Walby, K. (2012) ‘Carceral tours and the need for reflexivity: a response to Wilson, Spina and Canan’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 51.4, 411-418

Ross, J. I. (2012) ‘Touring imprisonment: a descriptive statistical analysis of prison museums’, SSRN Scholarly Paper, Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network

‘Top 10 prisons you can visit’ (2012) The Telegraph, 13 February, <> (accessed 9 March 2016)

Welch, M. (2012) ‘Penal tourism and the ‘dream of order’: exhibiting early penology in Argentina and Australia’, Punishment and Society – International Journal of Penology, 14.5, 584-615

Bernstein, L. (2013) ‘The Hudson River School of Incarceration: Sing Sing Prison in Antebellum New York’, American Nineteenth Century History, 14.3, 261-282

Bolze, B. and Delarue, J.M. (2013) Prisons de Lyon: Une histoire manifeste, Lyon: Lieux Dits.

Dehoorne, O. and Jolliffe, L. (2013) ‘Dark tourism and place identity in French Guyana’, in L. White and E. Frew (eds) Dark Tourism and Place Identity: Managing and Interpreting Dark Places, London: Routledge. 156-166

Godfrey, B. (2013) Crime in England, 1880-1945, London: Routledge

Naidu, M. (2013) ‘Anthropology of experience: touring the past at Robben Island’, Journal Of Human Ecology, 43.1, 51-60

Welch, M. (2013) ‘Penal tourism and a tale of four cities: reflecting on the museum effect in London, Sydney, Melbourne, and Buenos Aires’, Criminology and Criminal Justice: An International Journal, 13.5, 479-505

Hayward, P. and Tran G.T.H. (2014) ‘At the edge: heritage and tourism development in Vietnam’s Con Dao archipelago’, Journal of Marine and Island Cultures, 3.2, 113-124

Hedges, C. (2014) ‘Alcatraz: a prison as Disneyland’, Truthdig, <> (accessed 4 March 2016)

Kelley, S. (2014) ‘Preserving a prison’, Smart Business Philadelphia, 8.7, 8-9

Paris, N. (2014) ‘Court and prison tourism: the real ‘inside’ guides’, The Telegraph, <> (accessed 9 March 2016)

Aslan, S. (2015) ‘Prison tourism as a form of dark tourism’, Journal of International Social Research, 8.40, 600-608

Barton, A. and Brown, A. (2015) ‘Show me the prison! The development of prison tourism in the UK’, Crime, Media, Culture, 11.3, 237-258

Dalton, D. (2015) Dark Tourism and Crime, London: Routledge

Ferguson, M., Piché, J. and Walby, K. (2015) ‘Bridging or fostering social distance? An analysis of penal spectator comments on Canadian penal history museums’, Crime Media Culture, 11.3, 357-374

Lin, H. (2015) ‘The selected representation of contested prison history: memorial exhibitions and tourist experiences’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 21.8, 805-819

Luscombe, A., Walby, K. and Piché, J. (2015) ‘Making punishment memorialization pay? Marketing, networks, and souvenirs at small penal history museums in Canada’, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, (online publication) <> (accessed 2 September 2016)

Ong, C., Minca, C., and Felder, M. (2015) ‘The historic hotel as “quasi-freedom machine”: negotiating utopian visions and dark histories at Amsterdam’s Lloyd Hotel and ‘Cultural Embassy’’, Journal of Heritage Tourism, 10.2, 167-183

Turner, I. and Peters K. (2015) ‘Unlocking carceral atmospheres: designing visual/material encounters at the prison museum’, Visual Communication, 14.3, 309-330

Walby, K. and Piché, J. (2015) ‘Making meaning out of punishment: penitentiary, prison, jail and lock-up museums in Canada’, Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 57.4, 475-502

Walby, K. and Piché, J. (2015) ‘Staged authenticity in penal history sites across Canada’, Tourist Studies, 15.2, 231-247

Welch, M. (2015) Escape to Prison: Penal Tourism and the Pull of Punishment, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press

Kleuskens, S., Piché, J., Walby, K. and Chen, A. (2016) ‘Reconsidering the boundaries of the shadow carceral state: an analysis of the symbiosis between punishment and its memorialization’, Theoretical Criminology, (online publication) <> (accessed 2 September 2016)

Turner, J. (2016) The Prison Boundary: Between Society and Carceral Space, London: Palgrave Macmillan

Queen, N. (n.d.) Paranormal Tourism and Ghost Hunting: A Journey through West Virginia State Penitentiary

Battlefield and conflict tourism (including terror tourism)

Uzzell, D. (1989) ‘The hot interpretation of war and conflict’, Heritage Interpretation, 1, 33-47

Smith, V.L. (1996) ‘War and its tourist attractions’, in A. Pizam and Y. Mansfeld (eds) Tourism, Crime and International Security Issues, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 247-264

Tunbridge, J.E. and Ashworth, G.J. (1996) Dissonant heritage: the management of the past as a resource in conflict, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons

Smith, V.L. (1998) ‘War and tourism: an American ethnography’, Annals of Tourism Research, 25.1, 202-227

Lloyd, D.W. (1998) Battlefield Tourism: Pilgrimage and the Commemoration of the Great War in Britain, Australia and Canada, Oxford, Berg

‘All aboard Belfast’s terror tour’ (1 December 1999) BBC News, <> (accessed 18 March 2016)

Olick, J.K. (1999) ‘Genre memories and memory genres: a dialogical analysis of May 8, 1945 commemorations in the Federal Republic of Germany’, American Sociological Review, 64, 381-402

Seaton, A.V. (1999) ‘War and thanatourism: Waterloo 1815-1914’, Annals of Tourism Research, 26.1, 130-158

Henderson, J. (2000) ‘War as a tourist attraction: the case of Vietnam’, International Journal of Tourism Research, 2, 269-280

Seaton, A.V. (2000) ‘“Another weekend away looking for dead bodies…”: battlefield tourism on the Somme and in Flanders’, Tourism Recreation Research, 25.3, 63-78

Blackburn, K. (2001) ‘The historic war site of the Changi murals: a place for pilgrimages and tourism’, Journal of the Australian War Memorial, 34 <> (accessed 25 March 2016)

Iles, J. (2001) ‘Death, leisure and landscape: British tourism to the Western Front’, in M. Dorrian and G. Rose (eds) Revisioning Landscapes and Politics, Edinburgh: Black Dog, 240 -375

Blair, J. (2002) ‘Tragedy turns to tourism at Ground Zero’, The Age, 29 June, <> (accessed 4 March 2016)

Goodrich, J. N. (2002) ‘September 11 2001 attack on America: a record of the immediate impacts and reactions in the USA travel and tourism industry’, Tourism Management, 23, 573-578

Beirman, D. (2003) ‘United States: September 11, 2001 terrorist attack: the impact on American and global tourism’, in D. Beirman (ed.) Restoring Tourism Destinations in Crisis: A Strategic Marketing Approach, Oxon: CABI Publishing, 43-68

‘From Troubles to Tourism’ (2003) BBC News, <> (accessed 18 March 2016)

Slade, P. (2003) ‘Gallipoli thanatourism: the meaning of ANZAC’, Annals of Tourism Research, 30, 779-794

Dunkley, R.A. (2004) ‘A study into the nature of dark tourism sites, with case study examples of HMS Belfast and the Cabinet War Rooms’, Welsh School of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure Management. Cardiff, University of Wales Institute, 81

Lisle, D. (2004) ‘Gazing at Ground Zero: tourism, voyeurism and spectacle’, Journal for Cultural Research, 8.1, 3-21

Timothy, D.J., Prideaux, B. and Seongseop-Kim, S. (2004) ‘Tourism at the borders of conflict and (de)militarised zones’, in T.V. Singh (ed.) New Horizons in Tourism: Strange Experiences and Stranger Practices, Wallingford: CAB International, 83-94

Knox, D. (2006) ‘The sacralised landscapes of Glencoe: from massacre to mass tourism, and back again’, International Journal of Tourism Research, 8.3, 185-197

Burns, P.M. and Novelli, M. (2007) Tourism and Politics, Amsterdam, Boston: Elsevier

Causevic, S. and Lynch P. (2008) ‘Tourism development and contested communities’,, <> (accessed 4 March 2016)

Rivera, L.A. (2008) ‘Managing “spoiled” national identity: war, tourism, and memory in Croatia’, American Sociological Review, 73, 613-634

Gutman, Y. (2009) ‘Where do we go from here: the pasts, presents and futures of Ground Zero’, Memory Studies, 2.1, 55-70

Winter, C. (2009) ‘The shrine of remembrance Melbourne: a short study of visitors’ experiences’, International Journal of Tourism Research, 11.6, 553-565

Winter, C. (2009) ‘Tourism, social memory and the Great War’, Annals of Tourism Research, 36.4, 607-626

Carr, G. (2010) ‘Shining a light on dark tourism: German bunkers in the British Channel Islands’, Public Archaeology, 9.2, 64-84

Causevic, S. and Lynch, P. (2011) ‘Phoenix Tourism: Post-conflict tourism role’, Annals of Tourism Research, 38.3, 780-800

Dunkley, R.A., Westwood, S. and Morgan, N. (2011) ‘Visiting the trenches: exploring meanings and motivations in battlefield tourism’, Tourism Management, 32, 860-868

Hyde, K., and Harman, S. (2011) ‘Motives for a secular pilgrimage to the Gallipoli battlefields’, Tourism Management, 32.6, 1343-1351

Osbaldiston, N. (2011) ‘The role of horror and dread in the sacred experience’, Tourist Studies, 11.2, 175-190

Winter, C. (2011) ‘First World War cemeteries: insights from visitor books’, Tourism Geographies, 13.3, 462-479

Winter, C. (2011) ‘Battlefield visitor motivations: explorations in the Great War town of Ieper, Belgium’, International Journal of Tourism Research, 13.2, 164-176

Jenkins, C. (2012) ‘Belfast’s immoral “conflict tourism”’, The Guardian, 7 May, <> (accessed 9 March 2016)

Kang, E.J., Scott, N., Lee, T.J. and Ballantyne, R. (2012) ‘Benefits of visiting “dark tourism” sites: the case of the Jeju April 3rd peace park, Korea’, Tourism Management, 33.2, 257-265

Lee, C., Bendle, L., Yoon, Y., and Kim, M. (2012) ‘Thanatourism or peace tourism: perceived value at a North Korean resort from an indigenous perspective’, International Journal of Tourism Research, 14.1, 71-90

Ozer, S. U., Ersoy, G. K., and Tuzunkan, D. (2012) ‘Dark tourism in Gallipoli: forecast analysis to determine potential of Australian visitors’, Procedia – Social And Behavioral Sciences, 41, 386-393

Potts, T. (2012) ‘’Dark tourism’ and the ‘kitschification’ of 9/11’, Tourist Studies, 12.3, 232-249

Stone, P.R. (2012) ‘Dark tourism as ‘mortality capital’: the case of Ground Zero and the significant other dead’, in R. Sharpley and P.R. Stone (eds) Contemporary Tourist Experience: Concepts and Consequences, London; New York: Routledge, 71-94

Winter, C. (2012) ‘Commemoration of the Great War on the Somme: exploring personal connections’, Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 10.3, 248-263

Fröhlig, F.A. (2013) ‘Painful legacy of World War II: Nazi forced enlistment: Alsatian/Mosellan prisoners of war and the Soviet Prison camp of Tambov’, Unpublished Doctoral Thesis (PhD), Stockholms Universitet

Lemelin, R. H., Thompson-Carr, A., Johnston, M., Stewart, E. and Dawson, J. (2013) ‘Indigenous people: discussing the forgotten dimension of dark tourism and battlefield tourism’, in D. K. Muller, L. Lundmark and R. H. Lemelin (eds.) New Issues in Polar Tourism: Communities, Environments, Politics, New York and Heidelberg: Springer, 205-215

Belhassen, Y., Uriely, N. and Assor, O. (2014) ‘The touristification of a conflict zone: the case of Bil’in’, Annals of Tourism Research, 49, 174-189

Buda, D. M., D’Hauteserre, A., and Johnston, L. (2014) ‘Feeling and tourism studies’, Annals of Tourism Research, 46, 102-114

‘‘Dark tourism’ in strife-torn areas on the rise’, (2014) CBC News, 31 July, <> (accessed 4 March 2016)

Darlington, C. (2014) ‘Dark tourism: a school visit to Flanders’, Bereavement Care, 33.2, 44-47

Gale, J. (2014) ‘War tourism: a growth industry’, National Security and Armed Conflict Law Review, 5.2, 118-144

Griggs, M.B. (2014) ‘People are travelling to war zones for tourism’,, 16 July, <> (accessed 18 March 2016)

Issac, R.K. and Çakmak, E. (2014) ‘Understanding visitor’s motivation at sites of death and disaster: the case of former transit camp Westerbork, the Netherlands’, Current Issues in Tourism, 17.2, 164-179

Kamin, D. (2014) ‘The rise of dark tourism: when war zones become travel destinations’, The Atlantic, <> (accessed 4 March 2016)

Miles, S. (2014) ‘Battlefield sites as dark tourism attractions: an analysis of experience’, Journal of Heritage Tourism, 9.2, 134-147

Miller R.K. and Kelli, W. (2014) ‘Museums – crime history’, in R.K. Miller and W. Kelli (eds) Travel and Tourism Market Research Handbook, Loganville, GA: Richard K Miller & Associates, 440-441

Pieris, A. (2014) ‘Southern invasions: post-war tourism in Sri Lanka’, Postcolonial Studies, 17.3, 266-285

Swensen, G. (2014) ‘From bastions of justice to sites of adventure’, Folklore, 57, 101-116

Stach, E., Pawłowska, A., and Matoga, Ł. (2014) ‘The development of tourism at military-historical structures and sites – a case study of the building complexes of Project Riese in the Owl Mountains’, Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism, 21.1, 36-41

Stephens, J.R. (2014) ‘Sacred landscapes: Albany and Anzac pilgrimage’, Landscape Research, 39.1, 21-39

Vander-Haagen, S.C. and Ray, A.G. (2014) ‘A pilgrim-critic at places of public memory: Anna Dickinson’s southern tour of 1875’, Quarterly Journal of Speech, 100.3, 348-374

Volcic, Z., Erjavec, K., and Peak, M. (2014) ‘Branding post-war Sarajevo journalism, memories, and dark tourism’, Journalism Studies, 15.6, 726-742

Wyllie, R. (2014) ‘”Entrenching nostalgia”: the historical significance of battlefields for South African tourism’, Historia. 2, 210-228

Zap, C. (2014) ‘War tourism – a growing trend?’, Yahoo! Travel, <> (accessed 4 March 2016)

Buda, D. M. (2015) ‘The death drive in tourism studies’, Annals of Tourism Research, 50, 39-51

Buda, D.M. (2015) Affective Tourism: Dark Routes in Conflict, New York: Routledge

Horodnikova, J., and Derco, J. (2015) ‘Dark tourism, thematic routes and possibilities for innovation in the Slovak Republic’, Tourism, 63.2, 241

Lagos, E., Harris, A. and Sigala, M. (2015) ‘Emotional language for image formation and market segmentation in dark tourism destinations: findings from tour operators’ websites promoting Gallipoli’, Tourismos, 10.2, 153-170

MacCarthy, M. and Willson, G. (2015) ‘The business of D-Day: an exploratory study of consumer behaviour’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 21.7, 698-715

Mansfeld, Y. and Korman, T. (2015) ‘Between war and peace: conflict heritage tourism along three Israeli border areas’, Tourism Geographies, 17.3, 437-460

McKinnon, J.F. and Carrell, T.L. (2015) (eds) Underwater Archaeology of a Pacific Battlefield: The WWII Battle of Saipan, Cham: Springer International Publishing

Ray, N. M. and Mink, A. T. (2015) ‘Beyond Downton Abbey: remembering the Great War’s fallen through education and marketing’, Atlantic Marketing Journal, 4.2, 21-47

Schwenkel, C. (2015) ‘The other veterans: socialist humanitarians return to Vietnam’, History and Memory, 27.2, 20-44

Sellers, J. (2015) ‘Zero Ground: mapping maritime commemoration in the age of Nelson’, European Romantic Review, 26.6, 679-698

Skinner, J. (2015) ‘Walking the falls: dark tourism and the significance of movement on the political tour of West Belfast’, Tourist Studies, 16.1, 23-39

White, G. M. (2015) ‘Is Paris burning? touring America’s ‘Good War’ in France’, History and Memory, 27.2, 74-103

Winter, C. (2015) ‘Ritual, remembrance and war: social memory at Tyne Cot’, Annals of Tourism Research, 54, 16-29

Yildiz, Z., Yildiz, S. and Aytemiz, L. (2015) ‘Dark tourism, terror tourism and its potential in Turkey’, İnsan ve Toplum Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi, 4.2, 390-407

Bird, G. and Claxton, S. (2016) Managing and Interpreting D-Day’s Sites of Memory: Guardians of Remembrance (Contemporary Geographies of Leisure, Tourism and Mobility), London: Routledge

Lisle, D. (2016) Holidays in the Danger Zone: Entanglements of War and Tourism, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press

Mahrouse, G. (2016) ‘War-zone tourism: thinking beyond voyeurism and danger’, ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies, 15.2, 331-345

Poverty and slum tourism

Jaguaribe, B. and Hetherington, K. (2004) ‘Favela tours: indistinct and maples representations of the real in Rio de Janeiro’, in M. Sheller and J. Urry (eds) Tourism Mobilities: Places to Play, Places in Play, London: Routledge, 155-166

Gentleman, A. (2006) ‘Slum Tours: a day trip too far?’, The Guardian, 7 May, <> (accessed 18 March 2016)

Seaton, A.V. (2010) ‘Reflections on slumming and the work of James Greenwood’, Conference, Destination Slum, Department of Management, University of West of England, December 9-11.

Seaton, A.V. (2012) ‘Wanting to live with common people? The literary evolution of slumming’, in F. Frenzel, K. Koens and M. Steinbrink (eds) Slum Tourism. Poverty, Power and Ethics, London; New York: Routledge, 21-48

Frenzel, F., Koens, K. and Steinbrink, M. (2012) (eds) Slum Tourism: Poverty, Power and Ethics, London; New York: Routledge

Frenzel, F. and Koens, K. (2012) ‘Slum tourism: developments in a young field of interdisciplinary tourism research’, Tourism Geographies, 14.2, 195-212

Ravi, S. (2014) ‘Home and the “failed” city in postcolonial narratives of “dark return”’, Postcolonial Studies, 17.3, 296-306

Frenzel, F. and Koens, K. (2015) (eds) Tourism and Geographies of Inequality: The New Global Slumming Phenomenon, London: Routledge

Frenzel, F. and Koens, K. et al. (2015) (eds) Tourism Review International, special Issue (2 parts), 18.4 – 19.2

Dark tourism and travel writing

O’Rourke, P.J. (1989) Holidays in Hell. London: Picador

Urry, J. (2004) ‘Death in Venice’, in M. Sheller and J. Urry (eds) Tourism Mobilities: Places to Play, Places in Play, London: Routledge, 205-215

Huggan, G. (2009) Extreme Pursuits: Travel/Writing in an Age of Globalization, University of Michigan Press

Joly, D. (2011) The Dark Tourist: Sightseeing in the World’s Most Unlikely Holiday Destinations, New York: Simon & Schuster

Skinner, J. (2012) (ed.) Writing the Dark Side of Travel, Oxford; New York: Berghahn Books

Johnston, T. (2013) ‘Mark Twain and The Innocents Abroad: illuminating the tourist gaze on death’, International Journal of Culture, Tourism, and Hospitality Research, 7.3, 199-213

Alexandra, D. M., Alexandru, C. and Larisa, T. (2014) ‘Dark tourism, Romania and Dracula: the perceptions of potential American tourists’, Annals of The University Of Oradea, Economic Science Series, 23.1, 309-319

Burroughs, R. (2014) ‘Weird farang thing: dark tourism in Alex Garland’s The Beach (1996)’, Postcolonial Studies, 17(3) 320-333

Buda, D. and Shim, D. (2014) ‘Desiring the dark: ‘a taste for the unusual’ in North Korean tourism?’, Current Issues In Tourism, 18.1, (online publication) <> (accessed 2 September 2016)

Creech, B. (2014) ‘The spectacle of past violence: travel journalism and dark tourism’ in F. Hanusch and E. Fursich (eds) Travel journalism: exploring production, impact and culture, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan

McKenzie, B. (2014) ‘Lonely Planet travel guides, dark tourism and the Baltic States: a longitudinal perspective’, Journal of Eastern European and Central Asian Research, 1.2, 1-2,

Alexander, E. (2015) The Dark Tourism of the Bosnian Screen, Gosport: Hampshire, Chaplin Books

Eyre, T. (2015) North Korea 2002, Enfield: The Nihilist Amateur Press

Sirisena, H. (2015) ‘Confessions of a dark tourist’, Michigan Quarterly Review, 54.3, 339-352

Disaster tourism

Lennon, J.J. and Foley, M. (2003) ‘The spectacularization of dark tourism: photojournalism, deontology and commemoration in the visitation of sites of mass disaster’ in V. Lavoie (ed.) NOW. Images of Present Time, Montreal, Quebec: Le Mois de la Photo à Montréal, 204-223

‘Tourists to view Katrina damage’ (2005) BBC News, 16 December, <> (accessed 18 March 2016)

Rittichainuwat, B. (2008) ‘Responding to disaster: Thai and Scandinavian tourists’ motivation to visit Phuket, Thailand’, Journal of Travel Research, 46.4, 422-432

Molokáčová L. and Molokáč, S. (2011) ‘New phenomenon – dark tourism’, Acta Geoturistica, 2.1, 1-7

Sather-Wagstaff, J. (2011) Heritage that Hurts: Tourists in the Memoryscapes of September 11, London: Routledge

Schmehl, K.U. (2012) Tourismus mit Beigeschmack: Dark Tourism am explodierten Reaktor in Tschernobyl, Munch: GRIN Verlag

Antick, P. (2013) ‘Bhopal to Bridgehampton: schema for a disaster tourism event’, Journal of Visual Culture, 12.1, 165-185

Coats, A. and Ferguson, S. (2013) ‘Rubbernecking or rejuvenation: post earthquake perceptions and the implications for business practice in a dark tourism context’, Journal of Research for Consumers, 23, 32-65

Stone, P.R (2013) ‘Dark tourism, heterotopias and post-apocalyptic places: the case of Chernobyl’, in L. White and E. Frew (eds) Dark Tourism and Place Identity, Melbourne: Routledge, 79-94

Biran, A., Liu, W., Li, G. and Eichhorn, V. (2014) ‘Consuming post-disaster destinations: the case of Sichuan, China’, Annals Of Tourism Research, 47, 1-17

Chang, T. (2014) ‘Dark tourism: the effects of motivation and environmental attitudes on the benefits of experience’, Revista Internacional De Sociologia, 72, 69-86

Koshiro, S. (2014) ‘Geoparks as sites for dark tourism’, E-Journal GEO, 9.1, 73-83

Tang, Y. (2014) ‘Dark touristic perception: motivation, experience and benefits interpreted from the visit to seismic memorial sites in Sichuan province’, Journal of Mountain Science, 11.5, 1326-1341

Wright, D. (2014) ‘Residents’ perceptions of “dark” tourism development: the case of L’Aquila, Italy’, Unpublished Doctoral Thesis (PhD), University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK

Yankovska, G., and Hannam, K. (2014) ‘Dark and toxic tourism in the Chernobyl exclusion zone’, Current Issues In Tourism, 17.10, 929-939

Becker, A. (2015) ‘Les musées de catastrophes’, in D. Bechtel and L. Jurgenson (eds) Muséographie des violences en Europe centrale et ex-URSS, Paris: Editions de l’EHESS

Rico, T. (2016) Constructing Destruction: Heritage Narratives in the Tsunami City (Critical Cultural Heritage Series) London: Routledge

Wright, D. and Sharpley, R. (2016) ‘Local community perceptions of disaster tourism: the case of L’Aquila, Italy’, Current Issues in Tourism, (online publication) <> (accessed 2 September 2016)

Yan, B.J., Zhang, J., Zhang, H.L., Lu, S.J. and Guo, Y.R. (2016) ‘Investigating the motivation-experience relationship in a dark tourism space: a case study of the Beichuan earthquake relics, China’ Tourism Management, 53, 108-121

Pilgrimage as dark tourism: mass murder and celebrity death

Foley, M. and Lennon, J.J. (1996) ‘JFK and dark tourism: a fascination with assassination’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 2.4, 198-211

Blom, T. (2000) ‘Morbid tourism: a postmodern market niche with an example from Althorp’, Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift – Norwegian Journal of Geography, 54.1, 29-36

O’Neill, S. (2002) ‘Soham pleads with trippers to stay away’, The Telegraph, 26 August, <> (accessed 18 March 2016)

Seaton, A.V. (2002) ‘Thanatourism’s final frontiers? internment sites and memorials as sacred and secular pilgrimage’, Tourism Recreation Research, 27.2, 73-82

Gibson, D. (2006) ‘The relationship between serial murder and the American tourism industry’, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 20.1, 45-60

Lennon, J.J. and Mitchell, M. (2007) ‘Dark tourism: the role of sites of death in tourism’, in M. Mitchell (ed.) Remember Me: Constructing Immortality, New York: Routledge

Lewis, C. (2008) ‘Deconstructing Grief Tourism’, International Journal of the Humanities, 6.6, 165-169

Levitt, L. (2010) ‘Death on display: reifying stardom through Hollywood’s dark tourism’, Velvet Light Trap: A Critical Journal of Film and Television, 65, 62-70

Stone, P.R. (2010) ‘Death, dying and dark tourism in contemporary society: a theoretical and empirical analysis’, Unpublished Doctoral Thesis (PhD), University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK

Korstanje, M. (2011) ‘Detaching the elementary forms of dark tourism’, Anatolia, An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 22.3, 424-427

Stone, P.R. (2011) ‘The dark tourist experience: mediating between life and death’ in R. Sharpley and P.R. Stone (eds) Tourist Experiences: Contemporary Perspectives, London: Routledge, 21-27

Stone, P.R. (2011) ‘Dark tourism and the cadaveric carnival: mediating life and death narratives at Gunter von Hagens’ Body Worlds’, Current Issues in Tourism, 14.7, 685-701

Levitt, L. (2012). ‘Solemnity and celebration: dark tourism experiences at Hollywood Forever Cemetery’, Journal of Unconventional Parks, Tourism and Recreation Research, 4.1, 20-25

Stone, P.R. (2012) ‘Dark tourism and significant other death: towards a model of mortality mediation’, Annals of Tourism Research, 39.3, 1565-1587

Goulding, C., Saren, M. and Lindridge, A. (2013) ‘Reading the body at von Hagen’s “body worlds”’, Annals of Tourism Research, 40, 306-330

Rofe, M.W. (2013) ‘Considering the limits of rural place making opportunities: rural dystopias and dark tourism’, Landscape Research, 38.2, 262-272

Bickerdike, J.O. (2014) Fandom, Image and Authenticity: Joy, Devotion and the Second Lives of Kurt Cobain and Ian Curtis, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan

Sion, B. (2014) (eds) Death Tourism: Disaster sites as Recreational Landscape, London; Calcutta: Seagull Books

Bickerdike, J.O. (2015) The Secular Religion of Fandom: Pop Culture Pilgrim, London: Sage Swifts

Collins-Kreiner, N. (2015) ‘Dark tourism as/is pilgrimage’, Current Issues in Tourism, 1-5 (online publication)

Kim, S., and Butler, G. (2015) ‘Local community perspectives towards dark tourism development: the case of Snowtown, South Australia’, Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 13.1, 78-89

Lipscomb, S. (2015) ‘Shedding light on dark history’, History Today, 65.4, 46

McMorran, C. (2015) ‘Between fan pilgrimage and dark tourism: competing agendas in overseas field learning’, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 39.4, 568-583

Seaton, T., North, M. and Gadja, G. (2015) ‘Last resting places? Recreational spaces? Or thanatourism attractions? The future of historic cemeteries and churchyards in Europe’, in S. Gammon and S. Elkington (eds) Landscapes of Leisure: Space, Place and Identities, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan

Werdler, K. (2015) Dark Tourism: de dood achterna, NRIT

Collins-Kreiner, N. (2016) ‘The lifecycle of concepts: the case of “pilgrimage tourism”’, Tourism Geographies, 18.3, 1-13

Dark tourism, public memory and museology

Austin, N. (2002) ‘Managing heritage attractions: marketing challenges at sensitive historical sites’, International Journal of Tourism Research, 4, 447-457

Frost, W. and Laing, J. (2013) Commemorative Events: Memory, Identities, Conflict, New York: Routledge

Huyssen, A. (2003) Present Pasts: Urban Palimpsests and the Politics of Memory (Cultural Memory in the Present series), Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press

Kazalarska, S.I. (2003) ‘‘Dark tourism’: reducing dissonance in the interpretation of atrocity at selected museums in Washington D.C.’, Unpublished Doctoral Thesis (PhD), George Washington University

Nanda, S. (2004) ‘South African museums and the creation of a new national identity’, American Anthropologist, 106, 379-385

Saltzman, L. (2006) Making Memory Matter: Strategies of Remembrance in Contemporary Art. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press

Sturken, M. (2007) Tourists of History: Memory, Kitsch, and Consumerism from Oklahoma City to Ground Zero, Durham, NC: Duke University Press

Williams, P. (2007) Memorial Museums: The Global Rush to Commemorate Atrocities. Oxford; New York: Berg

Manderson, L. (2008) ‘Acts of remembrance: the power of memorial and the healing of indigenous Australia’, Adler Museum Bulletin, 34.2, 5-19

Bonder, J. (2009) ‘On memory, trauma, public space, monuments and memorials’, Places, 12.1, 61-69

Logan, W. and Reeves, K. (2009) (eds) Places of Pain and Shame: Dealing with difficult heritage. London: Routledge

Becker, A. and Debray, O. (2012) (eds) Montrer les violences extrêmes (théoriser, créer, muséographier), Grâne, Drôme: Editions Creaphis

Arnold-de Simine, S. (2013) Mediating Memory in the Museum: Trauma, Empathy, Nostalgia. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan

Brown, J. (2013) ‘Dark tourism shops: selling “dark” and “difficult” products’, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 7.3, 272-280

Sion, B. (2014) Memorials in Berlin and Buenos Aires: Balancing Memory, Architecture and Tourism Lanham, MD: Lexington Books

Willis, E. (2014) Theatricality, Dark Tourism and Ethical Spectatorship: Absent Others, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan

Brown, L. (2015) ‘Memorials to the victims of Nazism: the impact on tourists in Berlin’, Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 13.3, 244-260

Magee, R., and Gilmore, A. (2015) ‘Heritage site management: from dark tourism to transformative service experience?’, Service Industries Journal, 35.15/16, 898-917

Ruins, decay and dark tourist sites

Hell, J. and Schonle, A. (2010) (eds) Ruins of Modernity, Durham, NC: Duke University Press

Moore, A. (2010) Detroit Disassembled, Bologna: Diamiani

Dillon, B. (2011) Ruins, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

Clark, L. (2015) ‘Ruined landscapes and residual architecture affect and palimpsest in trauma tourism’ Performance Research, 20.3, 83-93

Lavery, C. and Gough, R. (2015) (eds) On Ruins and Ruination – Special Issue of Performance Research, 20.3

Dark tourism and development of the heritage sector

Morales Cano, L. and Mysyk, A. (2004) ‘Cultural tourism, the state, and Day of the Dead’, Annals of Tourism Research, 31.4, 879-898

Brand, S. and Platter, N. (2011) ‘Dark tourism: the commoditisation of suffering and death’, in A. Papathanassis (ed.) The Long Tail of Tourism: Holiday Niches and their Impact on Mainstream Tourism, Wiesbaden: Gabler Verlag, 7-15

Garcia, B.R. (2012) ‘Management issues in dark tourism attractions: the case of ghost tours in Edinburgh and Toledo’, Journal of Unconventional Parks, Tourism and Recreation Research, 4.1, 14-19

Issac, R.K. and Ashworth, G.J. (2012) ‘Moving from pilgrimage to “dark” tourism: leveraging tourism in Palestine’, Tourism, Culture and Communication, 11, 149-164

Farmaki, A. (2013) ‘Dark tourism revisited: a supply/demand conceptualisation’, International Journal of Culture, Tourism, and Hospitality Research, 7.3, 281-292

Korotchuk, O. (2013) ‘Motivations behind traveling to dark tourism destinations: a qualitative study for future marketing campaign targeting dark tourism to Chernobyl’, Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects, Paper 77 <> (accessed 11 April 2016)

Nemeth, D. and Che, D. (2013) ‘Alternative tourism geographies: leveraging the ironic case of Pennsylvania’s Route 666 for economic development’, Applied Geography, 45, 109-118

Rybakova, E. V. (2013) ‘On development of dark tourism in Russia’, Modern Research of Social Problems, 8, 1-20

Mroch, C. (2014) ‘The Haunt Jaunts Guide to Halloween Hot Sports: The Spookiest Places to Enjoy Ghosts, Ghouls and Scares’, Haunt Jaunts <> (accessed 18 April 2016)

Drvenkar, N., Banožić, M. and Živić, D. (2015) ‘Development of memorial tourism as a new concept – possibilities and restrictions’, Tourism and Hospitality Management, 21.1, 63-77

Heidelberg, B. W. (2015) ‘Managing ghosts: exploring local government involvement in dark tourism’, Journal of Heritage Tourism, 10.1, 74-90

Hohenhaus, P. (2016), <> (accessed 5 May 2016)

Lipárová, K. and Lednický, V. (2015) ‘Analýza temného cestovního ruchu v České Republice/dark tourism analysis in the Czech Republic’, Unpublished Thesis: Vysoká škola báňská – Technická univerzita Ostrava

McEvoy, E. (2015) Gothic Tourism, New York: Palgrave Macmillan

Powell, R. and Iankova, K. (2016) ‘Dark London: dimensions and characteristics of dark tourism supply in the UK capital’, Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 27.3, 339-351

Urban, T. (2016) West Virginia’s Dark Tourism, Atglen, PA: Schiffer